OBJECTIVES OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
Objectives are pre-determined goals to which individual or group activity in an organization is directed. Objectives of personnel management are influenced by organizational objectives and individual and social goals. Organizations are not just satisfied with this goal. Further the goal of most of the organizations is growth and / or profits.
Institutions procure and manage various resources including human to attain the specified objectives. Thus, human resources are managed to divert and utilize their resources towards and for the accomplishment of organizational objectives. Therefore, basically the objectives of HRM are drawn from and to contribute to the accomplishment of the organizational objectives. The other objectives of HRM are to meet the needs, aspirations, values and dignity of individual employees and having due concern for the socio-economic problems of the community and the country. The objectives of HRM may be as follows
[IMG]file:///C:/Users/Delta/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image001.gif[/IMG] To create and utilize an able and motivated workforce
, to accomplish the basic organizational goals.
[IMG]file:///C:/Users/Delta/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image001.gif[/IMG] To establish and maintain organizational structure and desirable working relationships among all the members of the organization.
[IMG]file:///C:/Users/Delta/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image001.gif[/IMG] To secure the integration of individual or groups within the organization by co-ordination of the individual and group goals with those of the organization.
[IMG]file:///C:/Users/Delta/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image001.gif[/IMG] To create facilities and opportunities
for individual or group development
so as to match it with the growth of the organization.
[IMG]file:///C:/Users/Delta/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image001.gif[/IMG] To attain an effective utilization of human resources
in the achievement of organizational goals.
[IMG]file:///C:/Users/Delta/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image001.gif[/IMG] To identify and satisfy individual and group
needs by providing adequate and equitable wages, incentives, employee benefits and social security and measures for challenging work, prestige, recognition, security, status.
[IMG]file:///C:/Users/Delta/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image001.gif[/IMG] To maintain high employees morale and human relations
by sustaining and improving the various conditions and facilities.
[IMG]file:///C:/Users/Delta/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image001.gif[/IMG] To strengthen and appreciate the human assets continuously by providing training and development programs
[IMG]file:///C:/Users/Delta/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image001.gif[/IMG] To consider and contribute to the minimization of socio-economic evils
such as unemployment, under-employment, inequalities in the distribution of income and wealth and to improve the welfare of the society by providing employment opportunities to women and disadvantaged sections of the society.
[IMG]file:///C:/Users/Delta/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image001.gif[/IMG] To provide an opportunity for expression and voice management
[IMG]file:///C:/Users/Delta/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image001.gif[/IMG] To provide fair, acceptable and efficient leadership
[IMG]file:///C:/Users/Delta/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image001.gif[/IMG] To provide facilities and conditions of work and creation of favorable atmosphere for maintaining stability of employment.
Management has to create conductive environment and provide necessary prerequisites for the attainment of the personnel management objectives after formulating them. Human resource management
(HRM) is the strategic
approach to the management
of an organization's most valued assets - the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of the objectives of the business.
The terms "human resource management" and "human resources
" (HR) have largely replaced the term "personnel management
" as a description of the processes involved in managing people in organizations.
In simple words, HRM means employing people, developing their capacities, utilizing, maintaining and compensating their services in tune with the job and organizational requirement.
Its features include:
§ Organizational management
§ Personnel administration
§ Manpower management
§ Industrial management
But these traditional expressions are becoming less common for the theoretical discipline. Sometimes even employee and industrial relations
are confusingly listed as synonyms,
although these normally refer to the relationship between management and workers and the behavior of workers in companies.
The theoretical discipline is based primarily on the assumption that employees are individuals with varying goals and needs, and as such should not be thought of as basic business resources, such as trucks and filing cabinets. The field takes a positive view of workers, assuming that virtually all wish to contribute to the enterprise productively, and that the main obstacles to their endeavors are lack of knowledge, insufficient training, and failures of process.
Human Resource Management(HRM) is seen by practitioners in the field as a more innovative view of workplace management than the traditional approach. Its techniques force the managers of an enterprise to express their goals with specificity so that they can be understood and undertaken by the workforce, and to provide the resources needed for them to successfully accomplish their assignments. As such, HRM techniques, when properly practiced, are expressive of the goals and operating practices of the enterprise overall. HRM is also seen by many to have a key role in risk reduction within organisations.
Synonyms such as personnel management
are often used in a more restricted sense to describe activities that are necessary in the recruiting of a workforce, providing its members with payroll and benefits, and administrating their work-life needs. So if we move to actual definitions, Torrington and Hall (1987) define personnel management as being: “a series of activities which: first enable working people and their employing organisations to agree about the objectives and nature of their working relationship and, secondly, ensures that the agreement is fulfilled" (p. 49).
While Miller (1987) suggests that HRM relates to: ".......those decisions and actions which concern the management of employees at all levels in the business and which are related to the implementation of strategies directed towards creating and sustaining competitive advantage" (p. 352).
Human resources management involves several processes. Together they are supposed to achieve the above mentioned goal. These processes can be performed in an HR department, but some tasks can also be outsourced or performed by line-managers or other departments. When effectively integrated they provide significant economic benefit to the company.
§ Workforce planning
(sometimes separated into attraction and selection)
§ Skills management
§ Training and development
§ Personnel administration
§ Compensation in wage
§ Time management
§ Travel management (sometimes assigned to accounting rather than HRM)
(sometimes assigned to accounting rather than HRM)
§ Employee benefits
§ Personnel cost planning
§ Performance appraisal
§ Labor relations
An HRM strategy pertains to the means as to how to implement the specific functions of HRM. An organisation's HR function may possess recruitment and selection policies, disciplinary procedures, reward/recognition policies, an HR plan, or learning and development policies, however all of these functional areas of HRM need to be aligned and correlated, in order to correspond with the overall business strategy. An HRM strategy thus is an overall plan, concerning the implementation of specific HRM functional areas.
An HRM strategy typically consists of the following factors:
§ "Best fit" and "best practice" - meaning that there is correlation between the HRM strategy and the overall corporate strategy. As HRM as a field seeks to manage human resources
in order to achieve properly organisational goals, an organisation's HRM strategy seeks to accomplish such management by applying a firm's personnel needs with the goals/objectives of the organisation. As an example, a firm selling cars could have a corporate strategy of increasing car sales by 10% over a five year period. Accordingly, the HRM strategy would seek to facilitate how exactly to manage personnel in order to achieve the 10% figure. Specific HRM functions, such as recruitment and selection, reward/recognition, an HR plan, or learning and development policies, would be tailored to achieve the corporate objectives.
§ Close co-operation (at least in theory) between HR and the top/senior management, in the development of the corporate strategy. Theoretically, a senior HR representative should be present when an organisation's corporate objectives are devised. This is so, since it is a firm's personnel who actually construct a good, or provide a service. The personnel's proper management is vital in the firm being successful, or even existing as a going concern. Thus, HR can be seen as one of the critical departments within the functional area of an organisation.
§ Continual monitoring of the strategy, via employee feedback, surveys, etc.
The implementation of an HR strategy is not always required, and may depend on a number of factors, namely the size of the firm, the organisational culture within the firm or the industry that the firm operates in and also the people in the firm.
An HRM strategy can be divided, in general, into two facets - the people strategy and the HR functional strategy. The people strategy pertains to the point listed in the first paragraph, namely the careful correlation of HRM policies/actions to attain the goals laid down in the corporate strategy. The HR functional strategy relates to the policies employed within the HR functional area itself, regarding the management of persons internal to it, to ensure its own departmental goals are met.
The Human Resources Management (HRM) function includes a variety of activities, and key among them is deciding what staffing needs you have and whether to use independent contractors or hire employees to fill these needs, recruiting and training the best employees, ensuring they are high performers, dealing with performance issues, and ensuring your personnel and management practices conform to various regulations. Activities also include managing your approach to employee benefits and compensation, employee records and personnel policies. Usually small businesses (for-profit or nonprofit) have to carry out these activities themselves because they can't yet afford part- or full-time help. However, they should always ensure that employees have—and are aware of—personnel policies which conform to current regulations. These policies are often in the form of employee manuals, which all employees have.
Note that some people distinguish a difference between HRM (a major management activity) and HRD (Human Resource Development, a profession). Those people might include HRM in HRD, explaining that HRD includes the broader range of activities to develop personnel inside of organizations, including, e.g., career development, training, organization development, etc.
There is a long-standing argument about where HR-related functions should be organized into large organizations, e.g., "should HR be in the Organization Development department or the other way around?"
The HRM function and HRD profession have undergone major changes over the past 20–30 years. Many years ago, large organizations looked to the "Personnel Department," mostly to manage the paperwork around hiring and paying people. More recently, organizations consider the "HR Department" as playing an important role in staffing, training and helping to manage people so that people and the organization are performing at maximum capability in a highly fulfilling manner.