السلام عليكم اقدم لكم موضوع مفيد وقيم جدا ارجو الاستفادة ساطرح الموضوع باللغة الانجليزية وقريبا انشاءالله اطرحه بالعربي
QUALITY AND STRATEGY
Managing quality helps build successful strategies of (differentiation, low-cost, rapid response). Also improvements in quality help firms increase profitability by two ways:
First, increase sales gains by:
- Improved response.
- Flexible pricing.
- Improved reputation.
Second, reduced costs by:
- Increased productivity.
- Lower rework and scrap costs.
- Lower warranty costs.
To achieve TQM system the organization must flow number of activities:
1-build good organizational practice (environment) throughout:
- Good leadership.
- Good mission statement.
- Effective operating procedure.
- Effective staff support and training.
2- Understanding and implement quality principles: such
- Customer focus.
- Continuous improvement.
- Tools of quality.
3- Employee fulfillment (to motivate employee to implement quality) by:
- Organizational commitment.
4- Customer satisfaction (the ultimate goal of quality)by:
- Winning orders.
- Repeat customers.
Definition of quality as adopted by American society for quality “the ability of a product or service to meet customer needs”.
Also we can define quality from different perspective:
1- From user-based: better performance, nicer features, and other improvements.
2- From manufacturing-based: conforming to standards and “making it right the first time”.
3- From product perspective: a precise and measurable variable.
Implication of quality: why quality is important
1- Company reputation: quality lead to improve the perceptions about the firm’s new products, employment practices, and supplier relations.
2- Product liability.
3- Global implications: quality is an international concern for both company and country and to compete effectively and making a profit in the global economy products must meet global quality, design, and price expectations.
Cost of quality (COQ)
The cost of doing things wrong. Four major types:
- Prevention costs: cost associated with reducing the potential for defective parts or services (e.g., training, quality improvement programs).
- Appraisal costs: cost related to evaluating products, processes, parts, and services (e.g., testing, labs, and inspectors).
- Internal failure: cost resulting from production of defective parts or service before delivery to customers (e.g., rework, scrap, and downtime).
- External costs: Costs that occur after delivery of defective parts or services (e.g., rework returned goods, liabilities, lost goodwill, and cost to society).
INTERNATIONAL OUALITY STANDARD
- ISO 9000: a set of quality standards developed by the international organization for standardization (ISO), the ISO play role as passport for a product to be accepted globally.
- ISO 14000: is an environmental management standard that contains 5 core elements (environmental management, auditing, performance evaluation, labeling, and life cycle assessment).
TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT
Management of an entire organization so that it excels in all aspect of products and services that are important to the customer.
Seven concepts for an effective TQM program:
1. Continuous improvement:
A never-ending process of continuous improvement that covers people, equipments, suppliers, materials, and procedures.
- Plan-Do-Check-Act: a circular model developed by Walter Shewhart, its infinity cycle of a continuous improvement started from:
o Plan: identify the improvement and make the plan.
o Do: test the plan.
o Check: to ensure is the plan working.
o Act: implement the plan.
2. Six Sigma:
Popularized by Motorola, Honeywell, and GE. Has to meanings in TQM:
- From statistical sense: a process, product, or services with an extremely high capability (99.9997% accuracy/no defects).
- The second: is a program designed to reduce defects to help lower costs, save time, and improve customer satisfaction.
- Implementing Six Sigma: successful Six Sigma require major time commitment, especially from top management.
4- employee empowerment
Selecting a demonstrated stander of products, costs, services, or practices that represent the very best performance for processes or activities very similar to your own.
The steps for developing benchmarks are:
- Determine what to benchmark.
- Form a benchmark team.
- Identify benchmark partners.
- Collect and analyze benchmark information.
- Take action to match or exceed the benchmark.
· Internal benchmarking: when an org is large enough to have many divisions or business units, a natural approach is the internal benchmark. Data are usually much more accessible.
6- just-in-time (JIT)
Produce or deliver goods just as they are needed. JIT related to quality in three ways:
- Cut the cost of quality.
- Improves quality.
- Better quality means less inventory and better, easier-to-employee JIT system.
7- Taguchi concepts
Include 3 concepts aimed at improving both product and process quality:
- Quality robust: Products that are consistently built to meet customer needs in spite of adverse conditions in the production process.
- A mathematical function that identifies all costs connected with poor quality and shows how these costs increase as product quality moves from what the customer wants.
- Target-oriented quality: a philosophy of continuous improvement to bring the product exactly on target.
TOOLS OF TQM
Seven tools that are helpful in the TQM.
1- check sheets
Any kind of a form that is designed for recording data.
Advantage: help analysts find the facts or patterns that may aid subsequent analysis.
2- Scatter diagrams
Show the relationship between two variables. EX: the relationship between absenteeism and productivity.
3- Cause-and-effect diagrams
A tool that identifies process elements (machine, manpower, method material) altogether called (causes) that may effect an outcome.
4- Pareto charts
Are a method of organizing errors, problems, or defects to help focus on problem solving efforts.
Graphically present or explain a process or system using annotated boxes and interconnected lines.
A distribution showing the frequency of occurrences of a variable. Descriptive statistics such as stander deviation an average may be used to describe the distribution.
7- statistical process control (SPC)
monitors standards, makes measurements, and take corrective action as a product or service is being produced.
Sample of process outputs are examined if they are within acceptable limits the process continue, if they fall outside acceptable range the process stopped then caused of problem located and remove it.
· Control chart: graphic presentations of process data over time, with predetermined control limits.