Jobs Analysis- Role & Importance
In order to hire or recruit the right person for the right job vacancy, the process of recruitment relies on an important step which is representing by finding the right person and explaining the responsibilities of the job.
To do so HRM should analyze the job and highlight duties, responsibilities and outcomes; it is the process of the job analysis.
A job analysis is the process used to collect information about the duties, responsibilities, necessary skills, outcomes, and work environment of a particular job. You need as much data as possible to put together a job description, which is the frequent outcome of the job analysis. Additional outcomes include recruiting plans, position postings and advertisements, and performance development planning within your performance management system.
The job analysis may include these activities:
· Reviewing the job responsibilities of current employees,
· Doing Internet research and viewing sample job descriptions online or offline highlighting similar jobs,
· Analyzing the work duties, tasks, and responsibilities that need to be accomplished by the employee filling the position,
· Researching and sharing with other companies that have similar jobs, and
· Articulation of the most important outcomes or contributions needed from the position.
The more information you can gather, the easier the actual writing of the job description will be.
It is the Job; not the person. An important concept of Job Analysis is that the analysis is conducted of the Job, not the person. While Job Analysis data may be collected from incumbents through interviews or questionnaires, the product of the analysis is a description or specifications of the job, not a description of the person.
Job analysis methods may take the form of interview, observation, questionnaire, and online forms.
II. Importance and purpose of Jobs Analysis:
The purpose of Job Analysis is to establish and document the 'job relatedness' of employment procedures such as training, selection, compensation, and performance appraisal.
a. Determining Training Needs
Job Analysis can be used in training/"needs assessment" to identify or develop:
· Training content
· Assessment tests to measure effectiveness of training
· Equipment to be used in delivering the training
· Methods of training (i.e., small group, computer-based, video, classroom...)
Job Analysis can be used in compensation to identify or determine:
· Skill levels
· Compensable job factors
· Work environment (e.g., hazards; attention; physical effort)
· Responsibilities (e.g., fiscal; supervisory)
· Required level of education (indirectly related to salary level)
c. Selection Procedures
Job Analysis can be used in selection procedures to identify or develop:
· Job duties that should be included in advertisements of vacant positions;
· Appropriate salary level for the position to help determine what salary should be offered to a candidate;
· Minimum requirements (education and/or experience) for screening applicants;
· Interview questions;
· Selection tests/instruments (e.g., written tests; oral tests; job simulations);
· Applicant appraisal/evaluation forms;
· Orientation materials for applicants/new hires
d. Performance Review
Job Analysis can be used in performance review to identify or develop:
· Goals and objectives
· Performance standards
· Evaluation criteria
· Length of probationary periods
· Duties to be evaluated
III. Pros and Cons
The interview is probably the most widely used method for identifying a job’s duties and responsibilities, and its wide use reflects its advantages. It’s a relatively simple and quick way to collect information, including information that might never appear on a written form.
A skilled interviewer can unearth important activities that occur only occasionally, or informal contacts that wouldn’t be obvious from the organization chart. The interview also provides an opportunity to explain the need for and functions of the job analysis. And the employee can vent frustrations that might otherwise go unnoticed by management.
Distortion of information is the main problem—whether due to outright falsification or honest misunderstanding.6 Job analysis is often a prelude to changing a job’s pay rate. Employees therefore may legitimately view the interview as an efficiency evaluation that may affect their pay. They may then tend to exaggerate certain responsibilities while minimizing others. Obtaining valid information can thus be a slow process, and prudent analysts get multiple inputs.
IV. Jobs classification:
Job classification refers to job types and reflects the value of the work performed by jobs. The number used in some job classifications refer to the grade - a lower number typically indicates a lower grade, or lower skilled, position. Different government agencies use different job classifications for their roles.
Classification Jobs are classified into an existing grade/category structure or hierarchy. Each level in the grade/category structure has a description and associated job titles. Each job is assigned to the grade/category providing the closest match to the job. The classification of a position is decided by comparing the whole job with the appropriate job grading standard. To ensure equity in job grading and wage rates, a common set of job grading standards and instructions are used. Because of differences in duties, skills and knowledge, and other aspects of trades and labor jobs, job grading standards are developed mainly along occupational lines.
The standards do not attempt to describe every work assignment of each position in the occupation covered. The standards identify and describe those key characteristics of occupations which are significant for distinguishing different levels of work. They define these key characteristics in such a way as to provide a basis for assigning the appropriate grade level to all positions in the occupation to which the standards apply.
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