Recruitment & selection are key processes, which have impact to potentiate the composition & culture of the organization. Assessing the employee for integration & retention influence the existing employees & the organization's performance. There are different perspective aspects of recruitment & selection, such as psychometric, social, & person organization fit (POF). The psychometric perspective dominance to identify, measure, & select the applicant on the grounds of having best knowledge, skills, & abilities (KSA),that required for the job post. Written tests & tools are designated to assess the candidates KSA, & thus their suitability. The social perspective deals to focus attention on the social interaction between the two central parties; the applicant & the recruiting organization. In addition, to the quality measures of a candidate mutual trust is built through assessment process which involves exchange of views & perceptions of both parties. Person organization fit (POF) perspective has recently emerged with the intention to know the applicants knowledge regarding his surroundings (Bowers, 1991).
Recruitment & selection are distinct processes focusing attention both externally & within the organization.
Flippo's definition: - It is a process of searching for prospective employees & stimulating & encouraging them to apply for jobs in an organization.
Recruitment process: - Recruitment process involves 5 elements, such as
1. A recruitment policy: - The recruitment policy defines the objectives of recruitment & provides a framework for the implementation of the recruitment program. The policy compliance with economic principles, statutes, & regulations of the organization. It imposes principles to recruit the best employee with criteria for selection & preferences based on merit & suitability.
2. A recruitment organization: - The centralize function of recruitment & selection maximize efficiency & success in hiring.
3. Forecast of Manpower: This usually specifies;
a) Vacancy for specified jobs
b) To determine job qualification & experience for recruitment purposes.
c) Duration of their employment
d) Salary to be offered, & terms & conditions of the employment.
4. Sources of recruitment: - There are 2 kinds of sources;
a) Internal Source: - It includes personnel already on the payroll of an organization. Promotions, transfers, response to employees to notified vacancy are usually ways of internal recruitment.
b) External source: - These sources lie outside the organization.
5. Methods of recruitment: - The following are examples of situations where the organization uses methods for recruitment:
1. Job centre: - A job centre is a external service, which will advertise the job & help with short listing suitable candidates from a pool of available candidates.
2. Employment exchange: - It is a recruitment office to register candidates or job seekers, & organize their placement in notified vacancies.
3. Advertisement: - A popular source of recruitment is advertising for the job in newspaper, magazines, or journals.
4. Employee referrals: - Friends & relatives of present employee introduce new recruit, which proves highly credible & important source for the organization.
5. Internet: - The use of internet provides a highly cost effective & efficient means of reaching applicants on a global basis. It offers a more consistent publicize relevant & dynamic job information (Lievens & Harris, 2003), as well as showcasing their achievements & credentials.
Selection is referred to as the final stage of the recruitment process where important decision is made by using number of techniques, such as
1. Interview: - Interview remains the most common method of selection. It offers an opportunity for a genuine two- way exchange of information or social process tool to assess each other; applicant & interviewer.
2. Cognitive ability test: - This testing is the most effective means of selection to enhance job performance. The link between assessment & job performance is complex. Cognitive ability can be categorized into fluid intelligence & crystallized intelligence. Fluid intelligence refers to the ability to reason quickly & to think abstractly. It is defined as our "on -the -spot reasoning ability, a skill not basically dependant on our experience". Belsky (1990) indicates this type of intelligence is active when the central nervous system (CNS) is at its physiological peak. Crystallized intelligence focuses on more culturally developed & education derived reasoning skills.
3. Work-based tests: - When an organization needs to assess the level of candidate's competence in particular areas, work sample or situational judgment tests used. The judgment is based on behavioral tendency & knowledge base performances, which results to achieve formal decision for selection.
4. Bio-data: - The biographical information related to age, education, personal history, current & past employment influence to know enough about people's life histories, & evaluate subjective performance scales.